by Sheri Urban
The mainstream media is promoting the idea that declaring a national emergency is some unprecedented move by President Donald Trump.
But the fact is that many national emergencies have been declared since the act to allow them has been in place.
And they are currently, counting President Trump’s national emergency declaration on Friday, 32 in effect that date back to former President Jimmy Carter.
What separates President Trump’s national emergency from others is that the majority of those prior were declared to help foreign nations.
President Trump declared his national emergency to build a wall on the Southern border to protect The United States.
The National Emergencies in Effect from the administration of former President Jimmy Carter.
November 14, 1979 – Blocking Iranian Government Property (Executive Order 12170) – After the Iran hostage crisis, President Jimmy Carter issued an order freezing all Iranian assets in the U.S.
The National Emergencies in Effect from the administration of former President Bill Clinton.
November 14, 1994 -Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (Executive Order 12938) – Provides for control over the export of weapons; combined two previous national emergencies regarding WMDs.
January 23, 1995 – Prohibiting Transactions With Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process (Executive Order 12947) – Imposed economic sanctions on Specially Designated Terrorists, including the ANO, Hezbollah, the DFLP, Hamas, and the PFLP.
March 15, 1995 – Prohibiting Certain Transactions with Respect to the Development of Iranian Petroleum Resources (Executive Order 12957) – Intended to prevent a business deal between Iran and Conoco.
October 21, 1995 – Blocking Assets and Prohibiting Transactions with Significant Narcotics Traffickers (Executive Order 12978) – Declared in response to Colombian drug cartels using American companies to launder money.
March 1, 1996 – Declaration of a National Emergency and Invocation of Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels (Proclamation 6867) – Implemented following the destruction of two civilian aircraft by the Cuban military on 24 February 1996.
November 3, 1997 – Blocking Sudanese Government Property and Prohibiting Transactions With Sudan (Executive Order 13067) – Established a trade embargo against Sudan, specifically targeting the Sudanese government.
The National Emergencies in Effect from the administration of former President George W. Bush.
June 26, 2001 – Blocking Property of Persons Who Threaten International Stabilization Efforts in the Western Balkans (Executive Order 13219) – Intended to combat extremist Albanian insurgents operating in North Macedonia and limit obstruction of the Dayton Accords. Amended on May 28, 2003 (Executive Order 13304) following the Ohrid Agreement, signed in 2001.
August 17, 2001 – Continuation of Export Control Regulations (Executive Order 13222) – Reasserted presidential control of exports of “defense articles” following the expiration of the Export Administration Act of 1979 in 1994. Amended on March 8, 2013 (Executive Order 13637) to delegate authority provided by Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act from the president to the Secretary of State.
September 14, 2001 – Declaration of National Emergency by Reason of Certain Terrorist Attacks (Proclamation 7463) – The first of two national emergencies declared following the September 11 attacks, allowing the president to call troops from the National Guard or from retirement, to apportion military funding, to exercise more discretion over hiring military officers, and to promote more generals than previously allowed.
September 23, 2001 – Blocking Property and Prohibiting Transactions With Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism (Executive Order 13224) – The second of two national emergencies declared following the September 11 attacks, allowing the State and Treasury departments (through the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control) to designate entities as terrorists and apply economic sanctions. Due to the order’s broad language, its scope has grown over the years to become one of the Treasury’s “cornerstone sanctions programs” in fighting terrorism worldwide. Amended on July 2, 2002 (Executive Order 13268) to include the Taliban, and on January 23, 2003 (Executive Order 13284) to integrate the newly-created position of Secretary of Homeland Security into the order’s process.
March 6, 2003 – Blocking Property of Persons Undermining Democratic Processes or Institutions in Zimbabwe (Executive Order 13288) – Imposed economic sanctions on Zimbabwe president Robert Mugabe and 76 other government officials following years of rigged elections and a recent food shortage, echoing similar sanctions imposed the previous year by the European Union. Amended on November 22, 2005 (Executive Order 13391) to revise the EO’s annex listing the individuals targeted with sanctions.
May 22, 2003 – Protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and Certain Other Property in Which Iraq Has an Interest (Executive Order 13303) – Granted the Development Fund for Iraq, established the same day, legal protection in the wake of the invasion of Iraq and amidst the Iraq War.
May 11, 2004 – Blocking Property of Certain Persons and Prohibiting the Export of Certain Goods to Syria (Executive Order 13338) – Imposed mostly symbolic economic sanctions on Syria, grounding all flights between the two countries, banning all exports to Syria but food and medicine, and freezing some Syrians’ assets.
June 16, 2006– Blocking Property of Certain Persons Undermining Democratic Processes or Institutions in Belarus (Executive Order 13405) – Imposed sanctions, including a travel ban, on Alexander Lukashenko after Belarus’s crackdown on peaceful protests against the recent presidential election and following similar sanctions by the European Union.
October 27, 2006 – Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Executive Order 13413) – Imposed economic sanctions on DRC government officials amidst widespread violence taking place during runoffs for Congo’s first free election in decades.
August 1, 2007 – Blocking Property of Persons Undermining the Sovereignty of Lebanon or Its Democratic Processes and Institutions (Executive Order 13441) – Imposed sanctions intended as a warning to Syria and Hezbollah, months after a similar travel ban, during widespread unrest in the country, and out of concern over rifts between prime minister Fouad Siniora and president Émile Lahoud.
June 26, 2008 – Continuing Certain Restrictions With Respect to North Korea and North Korean Nationals (Executive Order 13466) – Retained “certain restrictions” on North Korea as the United States removed North Korea from its list of state sponsors of terrorism and as North Korea publicly declared its nuclear program.
The National Emergencies in Effect from the administration of former President Barack Obama.
April 12, 2010 – Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in Somalia (Executive Order 13536) – Intended to help combat Somali pirates.
February 25, 2011 – Blocking Property and Prohibiting Certain Transactions Related to Libya (Executive Order 13566) – Imposed sanctions on Muammar Gaddafi, his family, and Libyan officials after protestors were killed by government forces, including freezing assets and consideration of prosecution for war crimes.
July 24, 2011 – Blocking Property of Transnational Criminal Organizations (Executive Order 13581) – Levied sanctions against four criminal organizations–Los Zetas, the Brothers’ Circle, the Yakuza, and the Camorra–including freezing assets, barring ownership of American real estate, and implementing travel bans.
May 16, 2012 – Blocking Property of Persons Threatening the Peace, Security, or Stability of Yemen (Executive Order 13611) – Intended to counter unrest in Yemen in the aftermath of the Yemeni Revolution.
March 6, 2014 – Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine (Executive Order 13660) – Imposed sanctions, including restricting visas, in concert with the European Union and the international community against Russia after its invasion and occupation of Crimea. Amended on 16 March 2014 (Executive Order 13661), 20 March 2014 (Executive Order 13662), and 19 December 2014 (Executive Order 13685) to expand the scope of sanctions.
April 3, 2014 – Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to South Sudan (Executive Order 13664) – Enabled economic sanctions to be placed due to the civil war in South Sudan; sanctions were first imposed a month later.
May 12, 2014 – Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in the Central African Republic (Executive Order 13667) – Imposed sanctions against former Central African Republic president François Bozizé, following similar sanctions placed on Bozizé by the United Nations Security Council the previous week; also contains provisions against the use of child soldiers.
March 8, 2015 – Blocking Property and Suspending Entry of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Venezuela (Executive Order 13692) – Imposed sanctions on seven high-ranking Venezuelan government officials, including SEBIN director Gustavo Enrique González López, PNB director Manuel Perez, and CVG head Justo Noguero.
April 1, 2015 – Blocking the Property of Certain Persons Engaging in Significant Malicious Cyber-Enabled Activities (Executive Order 13694) – Intended to allow sanctions to be levied on foreign individuals determined by the Department of the Treasury to have engaged in cyber-crime or cyber-terrorism; was in the works for two years.
November 22, 2015 – Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Burundi (Executive Order 13712) – Imposed sanctions on four Burundi nationals – minister of public security Alain Guillaume Bunyoni, National Police of Burundi deputy director-general Godefroid Bizimana, Godefroid Niyombare, and Cyrille Ndayirukiye – in the wake of widespread unrest.
The National Emergencies in Effect from the administration of President Donald Trump.
December 20, 2017 – Blocking the Property of Persons Involved in Serious Human Rights Abuse or Corruption (Executive Order 13818) – Imposed sanctions due to the Rohingya conflict in Myanmar, specifically against general Maung Maung Soe; works in tandem with the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act.
September 12, 2018 – Imposing Certain Sanctions in the Event of Foreign Interference in a United States Election (Executive Order 13848)] – Intended to enable automatic sanctions in response to election interference; intelligence agencies are given 45 days after an election to assess any possible interference.
November 27, 2018 – Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Nicaragua (Executive Order 13851) – Announces certain sanctions against current and former Daniel Ortega government officials engaging in “human rights abuse or corruption.”
February 15, 2019 – Declaring a National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States – Allocates funding to build a wall on the southern border of the United States, which the president stated is “a major entry point for criminals, gang members, and illicit narcotics.”
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